## Apple Seedling

In an earlier post, I had mentioned an apple seed that I had stuck in the of dirt of a flower pot in the kitchen; the seed sprouted and I had the photo-snapping-rig setup to capture the little guy grow.

Well, the seedling did not make it – it died.  But, I managed to capture all but the very first day of the seedling. The video takes about nine days of photos and compresses it down into about 30 seconds.

## Time Lapse

I will apologize a head of time for this posting.  It takes a bit of a dive into nerdom with some technical specifications, talk of Linux, servers, a mentioning of a thing called firewire and, at the end, there is information on the software that I am using to make time lapse videos.  But, interspersed between bits of this and that are some time lapse videos as well as some other nice photos.

Around five years ago, I made a time lapse video from a series of photographs.  The photographs, all 4,748 of them, were taken using a JVC MiniDV camcorder. The camera was tethered to a PowerBook (running Linux) via a firewire cable; the laptop would trigger the camera and then download the still-frame every 15 minutes.  Each photo was then uploaded to a server that was running in the basement.  The original video that was produced was over ten minutes long – the above video is a reprocessed version sped-up by four times.

Using a bit of software that I wrote, each photo was analyzed to determine if it was “too dark”. The analysis consisted of averaging the value of all the colors contained in a given photo; if the average was too close to black, the photo was rejected.  Another bit of processing involved inserting text, a timestamp and a watermark into the photo being processed.  Given the tools I was working with – a crufty PowerBook (held together with duct tape) running Linux and a MiniDV camera – embedding the text, timestamp and watermark as part of the photo/image made sense to me at the time.  Looking back, it would have been more useful to not have embedded that information into the images; some other location – either an ancillary place or even within each JPEG.

This go around, I am still using a nine year old camera (in 2009, the camera I used was from 2000), but a nine year old in 2014 is a different bit of technology than a nine year old camera in 2009.  The new camera is a Nikon D50 with a 35-70mm lens.  The camera body, lens, DC power adapter, and USB cable came to a total of about $225. The laptop that is effectively acting as an intervalometer would likely sell for another$225 (or less), but since the laptop is one that I have had for a long while and no longer actively use it, it is plausible to think of it as having no cost for me.

If you are still unclear as to what I am talking about with intervalometers, laptops and Nikon cameras, the basic idea is making a camera take a picture again and again and again at a regular interval.  It is kind of like regular motion pictures but on a much slower pace.  Instead of having 24 or 30 frames per second (as with a typical motion picture), there is only one frame every fifteen minutes.  Fifteen minutes is about the closest interval between photos that does not cause a tremendous waste of disk space and, in my case, you are able to capture enough difference in plant growth that it is noticeable; at 5 megabytes per photo, it amounts to a little less than half a gigabyte per day – with the particular laptop, I could safely shoot 140 days of photos.  Add a tweak to the software mix – and push the photos else where – like Amazon S3 - and you have an unlimited number of days.

Once I have a pile of photos, they need to be strung together into a video. In the Apple ecosystem, there is iMovie.  It is relatively inexpensive and is fairly easy to use.  This is what I use.  If you are hellbent on free or open source – checkout ffmpeg.

But that does not actually clear-up getting photos from the Nikon to the laptop; it also does not clear-up getting the laptop to trigger the camera at regular intervals.

I am using gphoto2.  This is a bit of open source software.  It took a bit of wrangling to get it to work, but it is quite robust and, so far, is quite reliable.  At the end of this posting, there are some random notes and a link to a bit of software I wrote to make it easier to trigger, download from the camera, and rename the photos in a consistent manner.

I am not sure why I like making or even watching time lapse videos of plants growing.  Maybe it has to do with being able to visualize something that ordinarily takes too long to be noticed by the human eye.

Maybe, I just feel a bit like Art Clokey.

Currently, the photo-snapping-rig is busy taking photos of a seedling started from a seed I pulled from a Braeburn apple.  The seedling is about an inch tall; its cotyledons have spread and the second set of leaves are little tiny spikes just above the stem.  I plan to photograph it for a couple weeks, or until the tripod the camera is attached to gets bumped.

Notes for a deep dive into nerdom:

If you are using Windows, you are on your own – I have not been an active or engaged Windows user for years. You’ll likely need cygwin in order to get gphoto2 working.  If you are using a Mac, I found it easiest to use homebrew.  Install homebrew, and then a simple brew install gphoto2 did the trick to get it installed.  I also installed ufraw for processing Nikon Raw format photos, but this is not necessary if you are using other Apple pieces of software for knitting your photos into movies (e.g. iMovie).

The camera needs to be in “PTP Mode” to communicate over USB; this is done by actually changing a setting on the camera – most likely by changing a setting from USB Mass Storage to PTP Mode. Once you have done that, with the camera connected to the computer, issue the command:

gphoto2 –auto-detect.

#> gphoto2 --auto-detect
Model                          Port
----------------------------------------------------------
Nikon D50 (PTP mode)           usb:253,003

If you are on a Mac, you will likely get an error at this point – instead of getting the listing of the attached camera.  Apple has a “helper process” that may latch onto the USB of the attached camera.  This will prevent gphoto2 from being able to communicate with it.

My solution was a bit of a big hammer.  I moved the offending program out of the way so it could be executed to latch onto the USB.  Another approach would be to terminate the process.  The program is called “PTPCamera”; if you would like to use the small-hammer approach, terminating it from a command line can be done like this:

ps -ax | grep PTPCamera | grep -v ' grep ' | awk '{print \$1}' | xargs kill -9

Or the big-hammer approach:

sudo mv /System/Library/Image\ Capture/Devices/PTPCamera.app /tmp

You might still need to terminate the process even if you move the program out of the way.

Once you have the PTPCamera process terminate/moved, try running gphoto2, again.

#> gphoto2 --summary
Camera summary:
Manufacturer: Nikon Corporation
Model: D50
Version: V1.00
Vendor Extension ID: 0xa (1.0)
Vendor Extension Description: Nikon PTP Extensions

Capture Formats: JPEG Undefined Type
Display Formats: Undefined Type, Association/Directory, TIFF, JPEG, DPOF, Script

Device Capabilities:
Generic Image Capture, No Open Capture, Nikon Capture 1

Storage Devices Summary:
store_00010001:
StorageDescription: None
VolumeLabel: NIKON D50
Storage Type: Removable RAM (memory card)
Filesystemtype: Digital Camera Layout (DCIM)
Access Capability: Read Only with Object deletion
Maximum Capability: 2014969856 (1921 MB)
Free Space (Bytes): 2009399296 (1916 MB)
Free Space (Images): 267

Device Property Summary:
Battery Level(0x5001):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 100, step 1] value: 100% (100)
'3008x2000',
'2256x1496',
'1504x1000'
] value: '1504x1000'
Compression Setting(0x5004):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Enumeration [0,1,2,4,5] value: RAW (4)
White Balance(0x5005):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Enumeration [2,4,5,6,7,32784,32785,32787] value: Automatic (2)
F-Number(0x5007):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Enumeration [450,500,560,630,710,800,900,1000,1100,1300,1400,1600,1800,2000,2200,2500,2900,3200] value: f/4.5 (450)
Focal Length(0x5008):(read only) (type=0x6) Range [3500 - 7000, step 1] value: 70 mm (7000)
Focus Mode(0x500a):(read only) (type=0x4) Enumeration [1,32784,32785,32786] value: Manual Focus (1)
Exposure Metering Mode(0x500b):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Enumeration [2,3,4] value: Multi-spot (3)
Flash Mode(0x500c):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Enumeration [2,4,32784] value: Auto (32784)
Exposure Time(0x500d):(read only) (type=0x6) Enumeration [20,25,31,40,50,62,80,100,125,166,200,250,333] value: 0.0017 sec (166)
Exposure Program Mode(0x500e):(read only) (type=0x4) Enumeration [1,2,3,4,32784,32785,32786,32787,32788,32789,32791] value: Auto (32784)
Exposure Index (film speed ISO)(0x500f):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Enumeration [200,400,800,1600] value: ISO 200 (200)
Exposure Bias Compensation(0x5010):(readwrite) (type=0x3) Enumeration [-5000,-4666,-4333,-4000,-3666,-3333,-3000,-2666,-2333,-2000,-1666,-1333,-1000,-666,-333,0,333,666,1000,1333,1666,2000,2333,2666,3000,3333,3666,4000,4333,4666,5000] value: 0.0 stops (0)
Still Capture Mode(0x5013):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Enumeration [1,2,32785,32787,32788] value: Power Wind (2)
Burst Number(0x5018):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Range [1 - 49, step 1] value: 1
Focus Metering Mode(0x501c):(readwrite) (type=0x4) Enumeration [2,32784,32785] value: Closest Subject (32785)
White Balance Preset Number(0xd01f):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: 0
White Balance Preset Value 0(0xd025):(read only) (type=0x6) 33685926
White Balance Preset Value 1(0xd026):(read only) (type=0x6) 33685926
Sharpening(0xd02a):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 6, step 1] value: Auto (0)
Tone Compensation(0xd02b):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 6, step 1] value: Auto (0)
Color Model(0xd02c):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: sRGB (0)
Reset Menu Bank(0xd045):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: 0
Auto ISO(0xd054):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: On (1)
Exposure Step(0xd056):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: 1/3 (0)
Exposure Lock(0xd05e):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Off (0)
Focus Lock(0xd05f):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 5, step 1] value: AE/AF Lock (0)
Auto Meter Off Time(0xd062):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 3, step 1] value: 6 seconds (1)
Self Timer Delay(0xd063):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 3, step 1] value: 10 seconds (2)
LCD Off Time(0xd064):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 4, step 1] value: 20 seconds (1)
Long Exposure Noise Reduction(0xd06b):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Off (0)
File Number Sequencing(0xd06c):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: Off (0)
NIKON Auto Bracketing Set(0xd07c):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: 0
No CF Card Release(0xd08a):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Off (1)
Image Comment String(0xd090):(readwrite) (type=0xffff) '                                    '
Image Comment Enable(0xd091):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Off (0)
Image Rotation(0xd092):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: On (0)
Auto Exposure Bracket Count(0xd0c3):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [1 - 3, step 1] value: 1
White Balance Bracket Step(0xd0c4):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: 0
Lens Sort(0xd0e1):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: 1
Min. Focal Length(0xd0e3):(read only) (type=0x6) 35 mm (3500)
Max. Focal Length(0xd0e4):(read only) (type=0x6) 70 mm (7000)
Max. Aperture at Min. Focal Length(0xd0e5):(read only) (type=0x4) f/3.3 (330)
Max. Aperture at Max. Focal Length(0xd0e6):(read only) (type=0x4) f/4.5 (450)
Nikon Exposure Time(0xd100):(read only) (type=0x6) Enumeration [66036,65936,65856,65786,65736,65696,65661,65636,65616,65596,65586,65576,65566] value: 65596
AC Power(0xd101):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Yes (1)
Maximum Shots(0xd103):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 49, step 1] value: 4
AF Locked(0xd104):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: No (0)
AE Locked(0xd105):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: No (0)
FV Locked(0xd106):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: No (0)
Active AF Sensor(0xd108):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 4, step 1] value: Centre (0)
Flexible Program(0xd109):(readwrite) (type=0x1) Range [-30 - 30, step 2] value: 0
Exposure Meter(0xd10a):(read only) (type=0x1) Range [-128 - 127, step 1] value: -6.7 stops (-81)
Recording Media(0xd10b):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Card (0)
CCD Serial Number(0xd10d):(read only) (type=0xffff) '            20058684'
Camera Orientation(0xd10e):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: 0' (0)
External Flash Attached(0xd120):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: No (0)
External Flash Status(0xd121):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: No (0)
External Flash Sort(0xd122):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: 0
External Flash Compensation(0xd124):(read only) (type=0x1) Range [-18 - 18, step 1] value: 0 (0)
External Flash Mode(0xd125):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 7, step 1] value: 0
Flash Exposure Compensation(0xd126):(readwrite) (type=0x1) Range [-18 - 6, step 2] value: 0.0 stops (0)
Optimize Image(0xd140):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 7, step 1] value: Normal (0)
Saturation(0xd142):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: Normal (0)
AF Beep Mode(0xd160):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Off (1)
Autofocus Mode(0xd161):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: AF-A (2)
AF Assist Lamp(0xd163):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: On (0)
Auto ISO P/A/DVP Setting(0xd164):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 7, step 1] value: 1/30 (2)
Image Review(0xd165):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: On (0)
AF Area Illumination(0xd166):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 2, step 1] value: Auto (0)
Flash Mode(0xd167):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: iTTL (0)
ISO Auto(0xd16a):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: 0
Remote Timeout(0xd16b):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 3, step 1] value: 1 min (0)
Flash Mode Manual Power(0xd16d):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 4, step 1] value: Full (0)
CSM Menu(0xd180):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Yes (1)
Bracketing Frames and Steps(0xd190):(readwrite) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 12, step 2] value: 12
Exposure Display Status(0xd1b0):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 4, step 1] value: No (0)
Flash Open(0xd1c0):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Yes (1)
Flash Charged(0xd1c1):(read only) (type=0x2) Range [0 - 1, step 1] value: Yes (1)

Additional software used:  ruby (via rvm) and scheduling of photo snapping was done via crontab.

## Huckleberry Hound

We have a new hound.  His name is Huckleberry; Huck, for short.  Huck is a Redtick Coonhound crossed with a Bloodhound. Like many of our recent endeavors (mostly my recent endeavors), it involved travel. Specifically, it involved driving 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometers).

But, let me back up a bit because this hound acquisition was not exactly on a whim.

At the beginning of January, I was sitting in a hotel in a city in the Mekong delta of Vietnam.  Melissa sent me a message, “What do you think of these hounds?”  It included the photos of a few different coonhounds and a bloodhound.

Aside from previously owning three coonhound mixes over the last decade, I likely contributed to the idea of getting one by taking a liking to bloodhounds while we were at dog shows over the last year.

After getting back to the United States from Vietnam and Japan, I started to get peppered with hound-related questions from Melissa – here and there – at breakfast, in the car on the way to the office, driving down to Racine to check the beehives.  “Of the hounds I showed you, which do you like the most?  I think I like this redtick – he goes by the name, Slim Jim;” He was a nice looking hound, but the name would have to go.  Slim Jim, that is either a stick of compressed, salted and spiced meat or something you use to open a car when you have locked your keys in it; not a coonhound name.

Melissa arrived upon wanting to get Slim Jim.  She talked more with the woman who was fostering the hound – temperament, how he was with other dogs, and other questions.  We worked the logistics of taking off a couple days from the office; the kennel the bassets are from was happy to hang on to them for a long weekend, though, hound-Henry was going to make the journey with us.

We rolled out of St. Paul on a Wednesday night, heading south to the kennel.  For the night, we stayed at the farmhouse at the kennel.  It turned out that leaving Wednesday night and not Thursday morning – St. Paul and the metropolitan area received roughly eight inches of snow.  South of Rochester, MN, where the kennel is located, only received rain.

Thursday morning, we trucked on, heading south into Iowa and eventually headed east across Illinois.  We hit terrible weather on the Illinois/Indiana border but by the time we had crawled our way to Indianapolis, the weather had cleared up.  We stopped for the night – to the southeast of Indianapolis.  Friday morning, after a quick breakfast, we rolled out.  Louisville, and Lexington in the rear view…

I like Kentucky.  It gets a bad rap for being considered backwater and backwards.  Maybe it is because I grew in a region of Minnesota that sometimes gets tagged with those same attributes; or maybe I just like the rolling mountains and horse pastures.

We kept driving – to Knoxville, and Asheville, and, around the time the sun was dropping behind the Appalachians, we pulled into the Hickory area of North Carolina.

On the way to Hickory, Melissa had been working through more logistics for the return trip to Minnesota.  As we had been traveling east, a winter storm had come out of Colorado and was heading east.  The storm would be going through central Illinois, northern Kentucky, and southern Indiana – the same area that we had just driven through.  We designed to head south a bit, after picking up the coonhound.

With the coonhound securely onboard, we headed to Lancaster, South Carolina.  Friends of my family from Hibbing live there now; we would be staying with them.  Lancaster was a farther south than we actually needed to go, but it would be nice to see the Baldwins.

Saturday morning, after the hounds and the Baldwin’s golden retrieves had played for a nice amount of time, Melissa and I packed up the hounds and headed out.

We cut west and drove the length of Tennessee.  Going the Cumberlands, I kept humming Wagon Wheel (Darius Rucker’s cover of the song did come up on the radio on several occasions).

Paducah, Kentucky was the final destination for Saturday.  Sunday, we pushed on through Missouri where the roads were covered with rutted ice (being politically incorrect, I referred to the road as “abortion road”).  Iowa was smooth sailing; we picked up the hounds at the kennel, and eventually, before 11:00 pm, we made it back to St. Paul.

## Winter Chickens

Recently, I have had a few people -here and there – tell me, “I want to hear more about your chickens!” It has been a while since I posted anything about them.

I think the last time I mentioned them in a post, they were in a sort of adolescent phase; they had not bulked up, yet, and they were not fully grown; a friend in Oregon said, “they look like teenagers!”

The teenage chickens have grown up, and two of them began laying eggs in late September.  By mid-October, however, they had stopped laying due to the decreasing amount of daylight.

But, it’s not like we need them to be producing prodigious quantities of eggs for us.  For starters, if they were merely creatures of production for us, we would have likely not built the coop we built.  There is my penchant for aesthetically pleasing structures.  But, we would have built something less expensive and not something with a swank green-roof over the run area; we certainly would not have sided the building with cedar shakes; I probably would not have designed and built a curved-top solid cedar door either.  Needless to say and by no stretch of one’s imagination, the birds are spoiled.

The chickens could care less about their posh surroundings; as long as they have water, food and shelter from winds, they seem happy.  During the cold snap at the start of the new year (I was conveniently in the tropics – 10.03 degrees latitude, no less), Melissa heated up oatmeal and mix in a few left overs for them to eat.  It is also probably beneficial that we picked birds that would be good in our area; heavier bodied birds with good feathering.  No naked-neck birds in our flock and no overly fancy combs, either.  We just have araucanas, brahmas, a speckled sussex and a Rhode Island red; there might be a silver laced Wyndotte, too.  The brahmas are probably the best suited for cold weather.  They are a larger bird – about seven to nine pounds – with feathers down their legs and even over their feet.  The nieces call them “fluffy feets”.

## Winter Bees in Racine

We headed down to Racine, MN, yesterday to visit hounds, people and check the hives.  People were in good shape, the hounds were doing well, but of the four hives in Racine, two were in good shape and two did not make it through the extraordinary cold that the region had while I was in Vietnam.

The weather yesterday was in the mid-30s (single digits celsius) and with the sun out, the bees were out buzzing around.